Professor of History of Science and Medicine
I am a historian of modern biological and medical sciences with special interests in embryology, reproduction, anatomy and evolution. I also research the history of visual culture. Having worked most on German-speaking Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries, I increasingly study Britain and the United States and range from 1750 to the present.
My new book, Haeckel's Embryos: Images, Evolution and Fraud, tells the extraordinary story of an alleged forgery that became a textbook classic. Spanning from the 19th to the 21st century, and from the German lands to the USA, it explores how scientific images succeed and fail, become taken for granted and cause trouble. My first book, Embryos in Wax: Models from the Ziegler Studio, was recently reprinted and is available from the Whipple Museum.
I am principal holder of a Wellcome Trust strategic award in the history of medicine on the theme 'Generation to Reproduction'. With Rebecca Flemming and Lauren Kassell, I am editing a large volume on Reproduction: Antiquity to the Present Day for Cambridge University Press. I am also writing Human Embryos: A Visual History and share an interest in the history of IVF with Martin Johnson (PDN) and Sarah Franklin (Sociology).
I came to history of science and medicine after postdoctoral work in developmental biology. Having lectured at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, I became a teaching officer here in 1998 and won a Pilkington teaching prize in 2006. I co-direct the Ischia Summer School on the History of the Life Sciences (the theme for 2017 is 'Cycles of Life') and am history section editor of Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online, an associate editor of the Journal of the History of Biology and a council member of the International Society for the History, Philosophy and Social Studies of Biology.
Haeckel's Embryos: Images, Evolution and Fraud (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015). 8.5'' x 11'', viii + 388 pp., 202 colour plates. Winner of the 2016 Suzanne J. Levinson Prize of the History of Science Society for best book in the history of the life sciences and natural history; 'highly commended' for the shortlisted for the 2016 BSHS John Pickstone Prize. Read a feature. Hear an interview.
- 'Copying Pictures, Evidencing Evolution', Public Domain Review, 18 May 2016
- 'Kreatives Kopieren: Ernst Haeckels Embryonenbilder', Lendemains: Études comparées sur la France 41, no. 162/3 (2016), in press
- 'Pictures of Evolution and Charges of Fraud: Ernst Haeckel's Embryological Illustrations', Isis 97 (2006): 260–301 [ ]
, co-edited and introduced (on pp. 379–405 [open access]) with Peter Murray Jones, Lauren Kassell and Jim Secord, a special issue of the Bulletin of the History of Medicine 89 (2015): 379–556. Read a Q&A. See an exhibition.
'The Cult of Amphioxus in German Darwinism; or, Our Gelatinous Ancestors in Naples' Blue and Balmy Bay', History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 36 (2015): 371–393 [open access]
- Short version: , The Lancet 381 (2013): 286–287 [open access]
- German translation: 'Der Embryologe und sein Homunkulus. Deutungen einer Marmorbüste von 1900', in Erkenne Dich selbst! Strategien der Sichtbarmachung des Körpers im 20. Jahrhundert, edited by Sybilla Nikolow (Cologne: Böhlau, 2015): 144–178
'Approaches and Species in the History of Vertebrate Embryology', in Vertebrate Embryogenesis: Embryological, Cellular, and Genetic Methods (Methods in Molecular Biology 770), edited by Francisco J. Pelegri (New York: Humana Press, 2011): 1–20 [ ]
- Summary: 'Why the MRC Did Not Fund the First Test-Tube Baby', BioNews 569 (2 August 2010), with Sarah Franklin and Martin Johnson
Seriality and Scientific Objects in the Nineteenth Century, co-edited and introduced (on pp. 251–285) with Simon Schaffer and Jim Secord, a special double issue of History of Science 48 (2010): 251–494 [ ]
'Embryology', in The Cambridge History of Science, volume 6: The Modern Biological and Earth Sciences, edited by Peter J. Bowler and John V. Pickstone (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009): 285–315
'Darwinism’s Tragic Genius: Psychology and Reputation', essay review of The Tragic Sense of Life by Robert J. Richards, Isis 100 (2009): 863–867
Making Visible Embryos, with Tatjana Buklijas, online exhibition (2008–10)
'Artist Versus Anatomist, Models Against Dissection: Paul Zeiller of Munich and the Revolution of 1848', Medical History 51 (2007): 279–308 [open access] [ ]
- See also , The Lancet 372 (2008): 1946–1947 [open access] [ ]. 'La política dels models' [open access].
- Shorter version with more pictures: 'A History of Normal Plates, Tables and Stages in Vertebrate Embryology', International Journal of Developmental Biology 51 (2007): 1–26 [open access] [ ]
Models: The Third Dimension of Science, co-edited and introduced (on pp. 1–15) with Soraya de Chadarevian; own chapter (pp. 170–206) on 'Plastic Publishing in Embryology' (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004). xvi + 464 pp.
Embryos in Wax: Models from the Ziegler Studio (Cambridge: Whipple Museum of the History of Science; Bern: Institute of the History of Medicine, 2002; reprinted 2013). xi + 206 pp., 32 colour plates, 100 halftones.
'Embryonen "auf dem Altar der Wissenschaft zu opfern": Entwicklungsreihen im späten neunzehnten Jahrhundert', in Geschichte des Ungeborenen. Zur Erfahrungs- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte der Schwangerschaft, 17.–20. Jahrhundert, edited by Barbara Duden et al. (Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2nd edition, 2002): 237–272
'Producing Development: The Anatomy of Human Embryos and the Norms of Wilhelm His', Bulletin of the History of Medicine 74 (2000): 29–79 [ ]
'The Introduction of Xenopus laevis into Developmental Biology: Of Empire, Pregnancy Testing and Ribosomal Genes', with John B. Gurdon, International Journal of Developmental Biology 44 (2000): 43–50 [open access] [ ]
'"Giving Body" to Embryos: Modeling, Mechanism, and the Microtome in Late Nineteenth-Century Anatomy', Isis 90 (1999): 462–496 [ ]
'Biology between University and Proletariat: The Making of a Red Professor', History of Science 35 (1997): 367–424 [ ]
'Producing a Socialist Popular Science in the Weimar Republic', History Workshop Journal 41 (Spring 1996): 117–153 [ ]
'Genetics in the Mandarin Style', essay review of Styles of Scientific Thought by Jonathan Harwood, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 25 (1994): 237–250